Maria Chudnovsky, Puzzlebomb, and Some Futility

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

This week we meet an incredible mathematician, take on a tough number puzzle, check out a wonderful mathematical card trick, and much more.

Maria Chudnovsky

A while ago we shared an interview with mathematician Fan Chung Graham.  The interview was posted by Anthony Bonato, The Intrepid Mathematician. Well, this week we share another of his interviews, this time with Maria Chudnovsky, graph theorist and star of not one, but two television commercials. (A rare feat for a mathematician.) Maria is also a winner of the extraordinary MacArthur “Genius” Grant. You can check out the video below or click here for the full interview.

Up next, our friends over at The Aperiodical do a lot of great things for the math world. One contribution is the monthly Puzzlebomb put on by Katie Steckles.

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This month’s puzzle is MODOKU, a sort of sudoku style puzzle where columns and rows span the possible remainders mod 7 and mod 5. Check it out! Thanks to Katie for such a lovely puzzle! You can click below for an interactive version with complete instructions.

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Finally this week, it’s time again to look at a Futility Closet, a phenomenal blog containing the odd mathematical tidbit. We’ll take a look at three of them.

Screen Shot 2016-07-21 at 12.51.33 AMHere’s a weird arithmetic fact I found there. Do you see what’s going on there? I have absolutely no idea how often this kind of thing is true, if ever again, but it gets me thinking.

2016-07-14-a-square-triangleHere’s another incredible one. We’ve posted about Pascal’s (Yang-Hui’s) Triangle lots of times (1 2), and I’ve come across a lot of fascinating stuff about it, but this is new to me. Apparently, “the product of the six numbers surrounding any interior number in Pascal’s triangle is a perfect square.” Can you prove it?

Now on to the biggie…  This is such a cool card trick! Here’s the trick as explained by Futility Closet:

“I hand you an ordinary deck of 52 cards. You inspect and shuffle it, then choose five cards from the deck and hand them to my assistant. She looks at them and passes four of them to me. I name the fifth card.”         !!!!!!!!!!

2016-05-31-the-fifth-card

The key to the magic is this chart:

{low, middle, high} = 1
{low, high, middle} = 2
{middle, low, high} = 3
{middle, high, low} = 4
{high, low, middle} = 5
{high, middle, low} = 6

Can you figure out how it works from the chart alone? You’ll need a good assistant to get on board, and it wouldn’t hurt to practice a bit. Then get ready to impress. Oh, and if you can’t figure out the trick from the chart alone, then just head over to Futility Closet and read the full explanation.

Well that’s it for this week. Hope you found something delicious. Bon appetit!

Fractions, Sam Loyd, and a MArTH Journal

This week we’re rewinding to July 2012 for some fun with the fabulous Farey Fractions—which have been on my mind recently—plus lots more! Bon appetit!

Math Munch

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

Check out this awesome graph:

What is it?  It’s a graph of the Farey Fractions, with the denominator of the (simplified) fraction on the vertical axis and the value of the fraction on the horizontal axis, made by mathematician and professor at Wheelock College Debra K. Borkovitz (previously).  Now, I’d never heard of Farey Fractions before I saw this image – but the graph was so cool that I wanted to learn all about them!

So, what are Farey Fractions, you ask?  Debra writes all about them and the cool visual patterns they make in this post.  To make a list of Farey Fractions you first pick a number – say, 5.  Then, you list all of the fractions between 0 and 1 whose denominators are less than or equal to the number you picked.  So, as Debra writes in…

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Wild Maths, Ambiguous Cylinders, and 228 Women

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

You should definitely take some time to explore Wild Maths, a site dedicated to the creative aspects of mathematics. Wild Maths is produced by the Millennium Mathematics Project, which also makes NRICH and Plus.

squareit

I won!

One fun things you’ll find on Wild Maths is a game called Square It! You can play it with a friend or against the computer. The goal is to color dots on a square grid so that you are the first to make a square in your color. It is quite challenging! To the left you’ll find my first victory against the computer after losing the first several matches.

You’ll find lots more on Wild Maths, including an equal averages challenge, a number grid journey, and some video interviews with mathematicians Katie Steckles and Nira Chamberlain. Wild Maths also has a Showcase of work that has been submitted by their readers, much like our own Readers’ Gallery. (We love hearing from you and seeing your creations!)

Next up is a video of an amazing illusion:

Now, I am as big of a fan of squircles as anyone, but this video really threw me for a loop. The illusion just gets crazier and crazier! The illusion was designed by Kokichi Sugihara of Meiji University in Japan. It recently won second place in the Best Illusion of the Year Contest.

We are fortunate that Dave Richeson has hit it out of the park again, this time sharing both an explanation of the mathematics behind the illusion and a paper template you can use to make your own ambiguous cylinder!

PWinmathFinally this week, I’d like to share a fascinating document with you. It is a supplement to a book called Pioneering Women in American Mathematics: The Pre-1940s PhD’s by Judy Green and Jeanne LaDuke.

The supplement gives biographies of all 228 American women who earned their PhD’s in mathematics during the first four decades of the 20th century. You might enjoy checking out this page from the National Museum of American History, which describes some about the origin of the book project.

81-11284.13web

Judy Green, Jeanne LaDuke, and fifteen women who received their PhD’s in math before 1940.

I hope you will find both pleasure and inspiration in reading the stories of these pioneers in American mathematics. I have found them to be a lot of fun to read.

Bon appetit!

SliceForm, Rinus Roelofs, and krazydad

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

For the 5th and final Thursday of June we will once again take a look at some of the goodness over on our facebook page, and oh my goodness what a huge load of goodness we have indeed! For an appetizer, how about this little visual problem posted by ThinkFun Games? (If you remind me in the comments, I’ll tell you the neat way I thought about solving it.)

Circle areasThe shape consists of overlapped color circles.  Which two colors have their total visible areas equal? (click to enlarge)

Now onto the main course. I have to show you this incredible new math art tool called SLICEFORM STUDIO. Click over and check out their gallery to begin with. Just gorgeous.

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my_design

My first creation on SliceForm.com

There’s a tutorial page as well, but the best thing to do is probably just to start playing with the app itself.  DIG IN! The site is sort of made for people who can use laser cutters to do the paper and stuff, but you can also just click “trace and export strips” and then color it in and export the image. On the right, you can see my first creation. Email yours to mathmunchteam@gmail.com and we’ll stick it in our readers’ gallery.

Alright, up next is an amazing mathematical artist by the name of Rinus Roelofs. (You might remember the paper project of his that we shared at new year.) Well, Rinus is just an unblievable and prolific maker of incredible and beautiful things. Check out his website. (He has two, I think)

I follow Rinus on facebook, and he’s always posting pictures of his works in progress, and they are stunning. First, check out this gallery of Interwoven Ring Patterns he recently posted. Then take a look at his timeline photos. Lots of overlapping patterns and Möbius shapes.

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A completed galaxy puzzle.  Each colored area has rotational symmetry

Finally, have you ever heard of Galaxy Puzzles?  I hadn’t either, but you can find lots of them over on the wonderful puzzling site, krazydad. The puzzle begins with lots of dots, and your goal is to separate the dots by making enclosures that have 180 degree rotational symmetry. Print and play galaxy puzzles are available as well as an interactive online version. There are lots of other puzzles available as well, but I think Battleships is a pretty cool. You might give that a try too.

 

But wait, there’s more. With 5 Thursdays in a month, there’s just lots to share, so you also get some bonus stuff!

That’s it for June. See you next time. Bon appetit!

Temari, Function Families, and Clapping Music

We have a rare 5 Thursdays this month, so we get an extra rerun post. This one features a Q&A with mathematical artist Carolyn Yackel and much more beautiful stuff. Enjoy!

Math Munch

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

Carolyn Yackel Carolyn Yackel

As Justin mentioned last week, the Math Munch team had a blast at the MOVES conference last week.  I met so many lovely mathematicians and learned a whole lot of cool math. Let me introduce you to Carolyn Yackel. She’s a math professor at Mercer University in Georgia, and she’s also a mathematical fiber artist who specializes in the beautiful Temari balls you can see below or by clicking the link. Carolyn has exhibited at the Bridges conference, naturally, and her 2012 Bridges page contains an artist statement and some explanation of her art.

temari15 temari3 temari16

Icosidodecahedron Icosidodecahedron

Truncated Dodecahedron Truncated Dodecahedron

Cuboctahedron Cuboctahedron

Temari is an ancient form of japanese folk art. These embroidered balls feature various spherical symmetries, and part of Carolyn’s work has been figure out how to create and exploit these symmetries on the sphere.  I mean how do you actually make it…

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Combinatorial Games, Redistricting Game, and Graph Music

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

Have you ever played tic-tac-toe? If so, maybe you’ve noticed that unless you or your opponent makes a bad move, the game always ends in a tie! (Oops– spoiler alert!) Why is that? And what makes tic-tac-toe different from other games that have unpredictable outcomes, like Monopoly or the card game War?

strategy-for-x

We wrote about tic-tac-toe in this post! Click to learn more.

Tic-tac-toe is similar to other kinds of game that mathematicians call combinatorial games— or games where there is no chance involved in the outcome and neither player has information that the other one doesn’t. This means that depending on who starts, where they go, and where each player decides to go next, the outcome is completely predictable and everyone playing could know what it is before it even happens. No surprises!

Now, this might also sound like NO FUN to you (why play the game at all if everyone knows what’s going to happen?) but I think it introduces a new kind of fun– figuring out what the outcomes could be! One of my favorite combinatorial games is the game NIM.

NIM 1

Here’s an example of a starting NIM board. If you go first, can you win? (Assuming your opponent never makes a mistake.)

NIM is a two-player game. You start with several piles or rows of objects (here they’re matches). On each turn, a player removes some objects from a pile– any number they want. BUT the player who’s forced to remove the last match loses!

 

There’s no chance in NIM– no dice determining how many matches you can remove, for example. Also both players know the rules and how many matches are in the piles at all times. That means that if you thought about it for a while, you could figure out who should win or lose any game of NIM. Maybe playing the game NIM isn’t super fun– but thinking about it like a puzzle is!

More versions of online NIM can be found here and here. And to read about combinatorial games we’ve written about in the past, check out this interview with mathematician Elwyn Berlekamp!

Next up, it’s presidential election time here again in the U.S.! Did you know that there’s a lot of mathematics behind what makes elections work? Four years ago, before the last presidential election, we shared a great series of YouTube videos about the math of elections.

redistricting game

A map in the redistricting game.

A big way that math gets involved in elections is through how politicians decide to draw districts, or regions of states that get to elect their own representative to the House of Representatives and elector to the Electoral College. The math behind drawing districts ranges from simple arithmetic to graph theory, or the field of math that deals with how parts of a shape or diagram are connected. To learn more about drawing election districts and the math behind it, check out the Re-Districting Game! In this game, you play the part of a map maker who works with the Congress, governor of your state, and courts to make a district map that meets everyone’s needs.

Finally, I recently ran across a series of graph music videos! What’s that? Videos in which a graph (made on Desmos) dances along to music, much like people would in a regular music video. Here’s one of my favorites:

The equations on the left-hand side of the screen create the images you see and the rhythm of the animation. Want to make your own graph music video? Share it with us!

Bon appetit!

Halving-Fun, Self-Tiling Tile Sets, and Doodal

This post comes to us all the way from June of 2014! Enjoy this blast from the past!

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

Print out two copies of this pattern, cut them out, and fold each along the dotted lines, making two identical solids. Then fit these two pieces together to make a regular tetrahedron.

Print out two copies of this pattern, cut them out, and fold each along the dotted lines, making two identical solids. Then fit these two pieces together to make a regular tetrahedron.

Our first bit of fun comes from a blog called Futility Closet (previously featured). It’s a neat little cut-and-fold puzzle. The shape to the right can be folded up to make a solid with 5 sides. Two of them can be combined to make a solid with only 4 sides, the regular tetrahedron. If you’d like, you can use our printable version, which has two copies on one sheet.

What do you know, I also found our second item on Futility Closet! Check out the cool family of tiles below. What do you notice?

A family of self-tiling tiles

A family of self-tiling tiles

Did you notice that the four shapes in the middle are the same as the four larger shapes on the outside? The four tiles in the middle can combine to create larger versions of themselves! They can make any and all of the original four!!

Lee Sallows

Recreational Mathematician, Lee Sallows

Naturally, I was reminded of the geomagic squares we featured a while back (more at geomagicsquares.com), and then I came to realize they were designed by the same person, the incredible Lee Sallows! (For another amazing one of Lee Sallows creations, give this incredible sentence a read.) You can also visit his website, leesallows.com.

reptile3

A family of 6 self-tiling tiles

For more self-tiling tiles (and there are many more amazing sets) click here. I have to point out one more in particular. It’s like a geomagic square, but not quite. It’s just wonderful. Maybe it ought to be called a “self-tiling latin square.”

And for a final item this week, we have a powerful drawing tool. It’s a website that reminds me a lot of recursive drawing, but it’s got a different feel and some excellent features. It’s called Doodal. Basically, whatever you draw inside of the big orange frame will be copied into the blue frames.  So if there’s a blue frame inside of an orange frame, that blue frame gets copied inside of itself… and then that copy gets copied… and then that copy…!!!

To start, why don’t you check out this amazing video showing off some examples of what you can create. They go fast, so it’s not really a tutorial, but it made me want to figure more things out about the program.

I like to use the “delete frame” button to start off with just one frame. It’s easier for me to understand if its simpler. You can also find instructions on the bottom. Oh, and try using the shift key when you move the blue frames. If you make something you like, save it, email it to us, and we’ll add it to our readers’ gallery.

Start doodaling!

Make something you love. Bon appetit!

A fractal Math Munch Doodal

A fractal Math Munch Doodal