Tag Archives: spirals

Dots-and-Boxes, Choppy Waves, and Psi Day

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

And happy Psi Day! But more on that later.

dots

Click to play Dots-and-Boxes!

Recently I got to thinking about the game Dots-and-Boxes. You may already know how to play; when I was growing up, I can only remember tic-tac-toe and hangman as being more common paper and pencil games. If you know how to play, maybe you’d like to try a quick game against a computer opponent? Or maybe you could play a low-tech round with a friend? If you don’t know how to play or need a refresher, here’s a quick video lesson:

In 1946, a first grader in Ohio learned these very same rules. His name was Elwyn Berlekamp, and he went on to become a mathematician and an expert about Dots-and-Boxes. He’s now retired from being a professor at UC Berkeley, but he continues to be very active in mathematical endeavors, as I learned this week when I interviewed him.

Elwyn Berlekamp

Elwyn Berlekamp

In his book The Dots and Boxes Game: Sophisticated Child’s Play, Elwyn shares: “Ever since [I learned Dots-and-Boxes], I have enjoyed recurrent spurts of fascination with this game. During several of these burst of interest, my playing proficiency broke through to a new and higher plateau. This phenomenon seems to be common among humans trying to master any of a wide variety of skills. In Dots-and-Boxes, however, each advance can be associated with a new mathematical insight!”

Elwyn's booklet about Dots-and-Boxes

Elwyn’s booklet about
Dots-and-Boxes

In his career, Elywen has studied many mathematical games, as well as ideas in coding. He has worked in finance and has been involved in mathematical outreach and community building, including involvement with Gathering for Gardner (previously).

Elywn generously took the time to answer some questions about Dots-and-Boxes and about his career as a mathematician. Thanks, Elywn! Again, you should totally check out our Q&A session. I especially enjoyed hearing about Elwyn’s mathematical heros and his closing recommendations to young people.

As I poked around the web for Dots-and-Boxes resources, I enjoyed listening to the commentary of Phil Carmody (aka “FatPhil”) on this high-level game of Dots-and-Boxes. It was a part of a tournament held on a great games website called Little Golem where mathematical game enthusiasts from around the world can challenge each other in tournaments.

What's the best move?A Sam Loyd Dots-and-Boxes Puzzle

What’s the best move?
A Dots-and-Boxes puzzle by Sam Loyd.

And before I move on, here are two Dots-and-Boxes puzzles for you to try out. The first asks you to use the fewest lines to saturate or “max out” a Dots-and-Boxes board without making any boxes. The second is by the famous puzzler Sam Loyd (previously). Can you help find the winning move in The Boxer’s Puzzle?

Next up, check out these fantastic “waves” traced out by “circling” these shapes:

Click the picture to see the animation!

Lucas Vieira—who goes by LucasVB—is 27 years old and is from Brazil. He makes some amazing mathematical illustrations, many of them to illustrate articles on Wikipedia. He’s been sharing them on his Tumblr for just over a month. I’ll let his images and animations speak for themselves—here are a few to get you started!

A colored-by-arc-length Archimedean spiral.

A colored-by-arc-length Archimedean spiral.

File:Sphere-like_degenerate_torus

A sphere-like degenerate torus.

A Koch cube.

A Koch cube.

There’s a great write-up about Lucas over at The Daily Dot, which includes this choice quote from him: “I think this sort of animated illustration should be mandatory in every math class. Hopefully, they will be some day.” I couldn’t agree more. Also, Lucas mentioned to me that one of his big influences in making mathematical imagery has always been Paul Nylander. More on Paul in a future post!

Psi is the 23rd letter in the Greek alphabet.

Psi is the 23rd letter in the Greek alphabet.

Finally, today—March 11—is Psi Day! Psi is an irrational number that begins 3.35988… And since March is the 3rd month and today is .35988… of the way through it–11 out of 31 days—it’s the perfect day to celebrate this wonderful number!

What’s psi you ask? It’s the Reciprocal Fibonacci Constant. If you take the reciprocals of the Fibonnaci numbers and add them add up—all infinity of them—psi is what you get.

psisum

Psi was proven irrational not too long ago—in 1989! The ancient irrational number phi—the golden ratio—is about 1.61, so maybe Phi Day should be January 6. Or perhaps the 8th of May—8/5—for our European readers. And e Day—after Euler’s number—is of course celebrated on February 7.

That seems like a pretty good list at the moment, but maybe you can think of other irrational constants that would be fun to have a “Day” for!

And finally, I’m sure I’m not the only one who’d love to see a psi or Fibonacci-themed “Gangham Style” video. Get it?

Bon appetit!

******

EDIT (3/14/13): Today is Pi Day! I sure wish I had thought of that when I was making my list of irrational number Days…

Music Box, FatFonts, and the Yoshimoto Cube

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

The Whitney Music Box

Jim Bumgardner

Solar Beat

With the transit of Venus just behind us and the summer solstice just ahead, I’ve got the planets and orbits on my mind. I can’t believe I haven’t yet shared with you all the Whitney Music Box. It’s the brainchild of Jim Bumgardner, a man of many talents and a “senior nerd” at Disney Interactive Labs. His music box is one of my favorite things ever–so simple, yet so mesmerizing.

It’s actually a bunch of different music boxes–variations on a theme. Colored dots orbit in circles, each with a different frequency, and play a tone when they come back to their starting points. In Variation 0, for instance, within the time it takes for the largest dot to orbit the center once, the smallest dot orbits 48 times. There are so many patterns to see–and hear! There are 21 variations in all. Go nuts! In this one, only prime dots are shown. What do you notice?

You can find a more astronomical version of this idea at SolarBeat.

Above you’ll find a list of the numerals from 1 to 9. Or is it 0 to 9?

Where’s the 0 you ask? Well, the idea behind FatFonts is that the visual weight of a number is proportional to its numerical size. That would mean that 0 should be completely white!

FatFonts can also be nested. The first number below is 64. Can you figure out the second?

This is 64 in FatFonts.

What number is this?
Click to zoom!

FatFonts was developed by the team of Miguel NacentaUta Hinrichs, and Sheelagh Carpendale. You can see some uses that FatFonts has been put to on their Gallery page, and even download FatFonts to use in your word processor. Move over, Times New Roman!

This past week, Paul pointed me to this cool video by George Hart about interlocking complementary polyhedra that together form a cube. It reminded me of something I saw for the first time a few years ago that just blew me away. You have to see the Yoshimoto Cube to believe it:

In addition to its more obvious charms, something that delights me about the Yoshimoto Cube is how it was found so recently–only in 1971, by Naoki Yoshimoto.  (That other famous cube was invented in 1974 by Ernő Rubik.) How can it be that simple shapes can be so inexhaustible? If you’re feeling inspired, Make Magazine did a short post on the Yoshimoto Cube a couple of years that includes a template for making a Yoshimoto Cube out of paper. Edit: These template and instructions aren’t great. See below for better ones!

Since it’s always helpful to share your goals to help you stick to them, I’ll say that this week I’m going to make a Yoshimoto Cube of my own. Begone, back burner! Later in the week I’ll post some pictures below. If you decide to make one, share it in the comments or email us at

MathMunchTeam@gmail.com

We’d love to hear from you.

Bon appetit!

Update:

Here are the two stellated rhombic dodecahedra that make the Yoshimoto Cube that Paul and I made! Templates, instructions, and video to follow!

Here are two different templates for the Yoshimoto cubelet. You’ll need eight cubelets to make one star.

And here’s how you tape them together:

Slides and Twists, Life in Life, and Star Art

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

I ran across the most wonderful compendium of slidey and twisty puzzles this past week when sharing the famous 15-puzzle with one of my classes.  It’s called Jaap’s Puzzle Page and it’s run by a software engineer from the Netherlands named Jaap Scherphuis. Jaap has been running his Puzzle Page since 1999.


Jaap Scherphuis
and some of his many puzzles

Jaap first encountered hands-on mathematical puzzles when he was given a Rubik’s Cube as a present when he was 8 or 9. He now owns over 700 different puzzles!

Jaap’s catalogue of slidey and twisty puzzles is immense and diverse. Each puzzle is accompanied by a picture, a description, a mathematical analysis, and–SPOILER ALERT–an algorithm that you can use to solve it!

On top of this, all of the puzzles in Jaap’s list with asterisks (*) next to them have playable Java applets on their pages–for instance, you can play Rotascope or Diamond 8-Ball. Something that’s especially neat about Jaap’s applets is that you can sometimes customize their size/difficulty. If you find the 15-puzzle daunting, you can start with the 8-puzzle or even the 3-puzzle instead. The applets also have a built in solver. I really enjoy watching the solver crank through solving a puzzle–it’s so relentless, and sometimes you can see patterns emerge.

Over ten solves, I found that the autosolve for the 15-puzzle averaged 7.1 seconds. How long do you think on average the 63-puzzle would take to solve?

You can read more about Jaap in this interview on speedcubing.com or on his about page.

puzzle

The 15-puzzle

Rotascope

Diamond 8-ball

Next, I recently read about an amazing feat: Brice Due created a copy of Conway’s Game of Life inside of a Game of Life! This video shows you what it’s all about. It starts zoomed in on some activity, following the rules of Life. The it zooms out to show that this activity conspires to make a large unit cell that is “turned on.” This large cell was dubbed a “OTCA metapixel” by its creator, where OTCA stands for Outer Totalistic Cellular Automata.

Finally, the video zooms out even more to show that this cell and others around it interact according to the rules of Life! The activity at the meta-level that is shown at the end exactly corresponds to the activity on the micro-level that we began with.  Check it out!

This metapixel idea has been around since 2006, but the video was created just recently by Philip Bradbury. It was made using Golly, a cellular automata explorer that is one of my favorite mathematical tools.

Last up, some star art! (STart? STARt? st-art?)  It turns out that the Math Munch team members all converged toward doing some StArT this semester as a part of our mathematical art (MArTH) seminar. Here is some of our work, for your viewing pleasure. Bon appetit!

by Anna Weltman

by Anna Weltman

Stars of the Mind’s Sky
by Paul Salomon

Star Ring 24
by Paul Salomon

300 Stars in Orbit
by Paul Salomon

by Justin Lanier