# Polyominoes, Clock Calculator, and Nine Bells

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

The first thing I have to share with you comes with a story. One day several years ago, I discovered these cool little shapes made of five squares. Maybe you’ve seen these guys before, but I’d never thought about how many different shapes I could make out of five squares. I was trying to decide if I had all the possible shapes made with five squares and what to call them, when along came Justin. He said, “Oh yeah, pentominoes. There’s so much stuff about those.”

Justin proceeded to show me that I wasn’t alone in discovering pentominoes – or any of their cousins, the polyominoes, made of any number of squares. I spent four happy years learning lots of things about polyominoes. Until one day… one of my students asked an unexpected question. Why squares? What if we used triangles? Or hexagons?

We drew what we called polyhexes (using hexagons) and polygles (using triangles). We were so excited about our discoveries! But were we alone in discovering them? I thought so, until…

A square made with all polyominoes up to heptominoes (seven), involving as many internal squares as possible.

… I found the Poly Pages. This is the polyform site to end all polyform sites. You’ll find information about all kinds of polyforms — whether it be a run-of-the-mill polyomino or an exotic polybolo — on this site. Want to know how many polyominoes have a perimeter of 14? You can find the answer here. Were you wondering if polyominoes made from half-squares are interesting? Read all about polyares.

I’m so excited to have found this site. Even though I have to share credit for my discovery with other people, now I can use my new knowledge to ask even more interesting questions.

Next up, check out this clock arithmetic calculator. This calculator does addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and even more exotic things like square roots, on a clock.

What does that mean? Well, a clock only uses the whole numbers 1 through 12. Saying “15 o’clock” doesn’t make a lot of sense (unless you use military time) – but you can figure out what time “15 o’clock” is by determining how much more 15 is than 12. 15 o’clock is 3 hours after 12 – so 15 o’clock is actually 3 o’clock. You can use a similar process to figure out the value of any positive or negative counting number on a 12 clock, or on a clock of any size. This process (called modular arithmetic) can get a bit time consuming (pun time!) – so, give this clock calculator a try!

Finally, here is some wonderful mathemusic by composer Tom Johnson. Tom writes music with underlying mathematics. In this piece (which is almost a dance as well as a piece of music), Tom explores the possible paths between nine bells, hung in a three-by-three square. I think this is an example of mathematical art at its best – it’s interesting both mathematically and artistically. Observe him traveling all of the different paths while listening to the way he uses rhythm and pauses between the phrases to shape the music. Enjoy!

Bon appetit!

# MoMA, Pop-Up Books, and A Game of Numbers

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

Thank you so much to everyone who participated in our Math Munch “share campaign” over the past two weeks. Over 200 shares were reported and we know that even more sharing happened “under the radar”. Thanks for being our partners in sharing great math experiences and curating the mathematical internet.

Of course, we know that the sharing will continue, even without a “campaign”. Thanks for that, too.

All right, time to share some math. On to the post!

To kick things off, you might like to check out our brand-new Q&A with Nalini Joshi. A choice quote from Nalini:

In contrast, doing math was entirely different. After trying it for a while, I realized that I could take my time, try alternative beginnings, do one step after another, and get to glimpse all kinds of possibilities along the way.

By Philippe Decrauzat.

I hope the math munches I share with you this week will help you to “glimpse all kinds of possibilities,” too!

Recently I went to the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City. (Warning: don’t confuse MoMA with MoMath!) On display was an exhibit called Abstract Generation. You can view the pieces of art in the exhibit online.

As I browsed the galley, the sculptures by Tauba Auerbach particularly caught my eye. Here are two of the sculptures she had on display at MoMA:

Just looking at them, these sculptures are definitely cool. However, they become even cooler when you realize that they are pop-up sculptures! Can you see how the platforms that the sculptures sit on are actually the covers of a book? Neat!

Here’s a video that showcases all of Tauba’s pop-ups in their unfolding glory. Why do you think this series of sculptures is called [2,3]?

This idea of pop-up book math intrigued me, so I started searching around for some more examples. Below you’ll find a video that shows off some incredible geometric pop-ups in action. To see how you can make a pop-up sculpture of your own, check out this how-to video. Both of these videos were created by paper engineer Peter Dahmen.

Tauba Auerbach.

Tauba got me thinking about math and pop-up books, but there’s even more to see and enjoy on her website! Tauba’s art gives me new ways to connect with and reimagine familiar structures. Remember our post about the six dimensions of color? Tauba created a book that’s a color space atlas! The way that Tauba plays with words in these pieces reminds me both of the word art of Scott Kim and the word puzzles of Douglas Hofstadter. Some of Tauba’s ink-on-paper designs remind me of the work of Chloé Worthington. And Tauba’s piece Componants, Numbers gives me some new insight into Brandon Todd Wilson’s numbers project.

This piece by Tauba is a Math Munch fave!

For me, both math and art are all about playing with patterns, images, structures, and ideas. Maybe that’s why math and art make such a great combo—because they “play” well together!

Speaking of playing, I’d like to wrap up this week’s post by sharing a game about numbers I ran across recently. It’s called . . . A Game of Numbers! I really like how it combines the structure of arithmetic operations with the strategy of an escape game. A Game of Numbers was designed by a software developer named Joseph Michels for a “rapid” game competition called Ludum Dare. Here’s a Q&A Joseph did about the game.

A Game of Numbers.

If you enjoy A Game of Numbers, maybe you’ll leave Joseph a comment on his post about the game’s release or drop him an email. And if you enjoy A Game of Numbers, then you’d probably enjoy checking out some of the other games on our games page.

Bon appetit!

PS Tauba also created a musical instrument called an auerglass that requires two people to play. Whooooooa!

Reflection Sheet – MoMA, Pop-Up Books, and A Game of Numbers

Welcome to this week’s Math Munch!

Abraham Lincoln, figuring out a word problem.
Can you decipher his steps?

About a month ago I ran across an article about Abraham Lincoln and math. Lincoln is often celebrated as a self-made frontiersman who had little formal education. The article describes how two professors from Illinois State University recently discovered two new pages of math schoolwork done by Lincoln, which may show that he had somewhat more formal schooling than was previously believed. The sheet shows the young Abe figuring problems like, “If 4 men in 5 days eat 7 lb. of bread, how much will be sufficient for 16 men in 15 days?” Here are some further details about the manuscript’s discovery from the Illinois State University website and a high-quality scan of Lincoln’s figuring from the Harvard University Library.

Lincoln is also known for his study of Euclid’s Elements—that great work of mathematics from ancient times. Lincoln began to read the Elements when he was a young lawyer interested in what exactly it means to “prove” something. Euclid’s work even made a brief appearance in the recent movie about Lincoln. Thinking about Lincoln and math got me to wondering about how our presidents in general have interacted with the subject. Certainly they must all have had some kind of experience with math! In my searching and remembering, I’ve run across these tidbits about Ulysses S. Grant, James Garfield, and President Obama. Still, my searches haven’t turned up so very much. Maybe you’ll keep your eyes open for further bits of mathy presidential trivia?

Next up, check out these math problems about blinking on a wonderful online resource called Bedtime Math. Every day, the site posts a few math problems that parents and children can share and ponder at bedtime—just like families often do with storybooks. Bedtime Math was founded by Laura Bilodeau Overdeck. She is involved with several math-related nonprofits and is the mother of three kids. Bedtime Math grew out of the way that Laura shared math problems with her own children. A few of my favorite Bedtime Math posts are “You Otter Know” and “Booking Down the Hall“.

Today’s Bedtime Math is titled “Space Saver” and contains some problems about hexagon tilings and our mathematical chum, the honeybee. Here is today’s “big kid” problem: If a bee builds 5 hexagons flush in a horizontal row, how many total sides did the bee make, given the shared sides? I hope you find some problems to enjoy at Bedtime Math. You can sign up to receive their daily email of problems on the righthand side of the Bedtime Math frontpage.

Zome inventor Paul Hildebrandt and
a mathy PCMI Fourth of July float!

Did you know that people blink differently when they lie? I’ve been thinking a lot these past few weeks about frauds and fakes as I’ve worked with some teacher friends on this year’s PCMI problem sets. PCMI—the Park City Math Institute—is a math event held each summer that gathers math professors, math teachers, and college math students to do mathematics together for three weeks. It all happens in beautiful Park City, Utah. The first week of PCMI coincides with the Fourth of July, and the PCMI crew always makes a mathy entry in the local Independence Day Parade!

The theme of the high school teachers’ program this year is “Probability, Randomization, and Polynomials”. The first problem set introduces the following conundrum:

Suppose you were handed two lists of 120 coin ﬂips, one real and
one fake. Devise a test you could use to decide which was which.
Be as precise as possible.

Which is real? Which is fake?

If you understand what this problem is all about, then you can understand my recent fascination with frauds! Over to the left I’ve shared two sequences I concocted. One I made by actually flipping a coin, while the other I made up out of my head. Can you tell which is which?

For more sleuthing fun, check out this applet on Khan Academy, which challenges you to distinguish lists of coin flips. Some are created by a fair coin, others are made by an unfair coin, and still others are made by human guesses. This coin-flipping challenge is a part of Khan Academy’s Journey into Cryptography series. You should also know that the PCMI problem sets from previous years are all online, filed by years under “Class Notes”. They are rich with fantastic, brain-teasing problems that are woven together in expert fashion.

And finally, to go along with your Bedtime Math, how about a little bedtime poetry? Check out the video below.

Sweet dreams, and bon appetit!